Atkins, Atkins diet, Atkins nutritional approach, Atkins Nutritionals, Inc. (ANI), Calories Don't Count, diet, Eco-Atkins diet, fad diet, glycemic index, high-fat diet, high-protein diet, ketogenic diet, low-carb diet, low-carbohydrate diet, low-starch diet, Robert Atkins, South beach diet®, The Drinking Man's Diet, very-low-carbohydrate diet, W. Banting's diet.
Not included in this review: Other high-fat diets, high-protein diets, low-carbohydrate diets (general), and the ketogenic diet.
Note: Only clinical trials investigating the effect of the Atkins Diet® itself will be discussed in the evidence section. Although the Atkins Diet® is considered a low-carbohydrate, high-protein, and high-fat diet, clinical trials investigating modification in macronutrients will be used to explain the potential mechanisms of action of the Atkins Diet®.
The Atkins Diet® is an eating style that supports an increased consumption of fats as the primary source of energy, while restricting carbohydrate intake. This is based on the idea that eating carbohydrate-rich foods like bread, cereal, potatoes, or pasta results in increased fat stores.
Experts have found potential long-term health risks associated with the diet, including type 2 diabetes and kidney problems. The safety and long-term effectiveness of the Atkins Diet® is a subject of debate in the medical community.
The role of the Atkins Diet® in reducing long-term obesity and its effects on other medical conditions need further investigation. However, short-term use of the Atkins Diet® does appear to result in weight loss in clinical trials.
The Atkins Diet® is a four-step dietary plan originally described in the 1972 book "Dr. Atkins' Diet Revolution." In 1992, a revised edition entitled "Dr. Atkins' New Diet Revolution" was published. Designed for weight reduction, the Atkins Diet® is a low-carbohydrate diet with unrestricted calorie intake from protein and fat. The diet is supplemented by significant amounts of vitamins, minerals, and other nutritional agents.
There are four stages of the program: induction, ongoing weight loss, premaintenance, and maintenance.
Induction phase: The diet initially excludes all carbohydrates. During the induction phase, a gradual increase of carbohydrates is permitted to a maximum of 20 grams of carbohydrates daily. The diet consists of nearly unlimited meats, poultry, seafood, eggs, cheeses, oils, butter, margarine, bacon, and sausages. The 20-gram carbohydrate limit comes from trace amounts in sauces, dressings, cheeses, and a few cups of lettuce, greens, or vegetables consumed daily. During the two weeks of the induction phase, participants cannot have milk, fruits, grains, cereals, breads, or "high glycemic index" vegetables such as potatoes, peas, corn, or carrots. Thereafter, depending on the individual and the stage of the diet, an increase to no more than 90 grams of carbohydrates daily is permitted.
Ongoing weight loss phase: Dieters begin adding about five grams of carbohydrates daily to their diet weekly. This phase continues until the dieter is within 10 pounds of the target weight.
Premaintenance phase: At this stage, dieters typically want to lose 5-10 more pounds and may increase carbohydrate intake by 10 grams daily for a week at a time.
Maintenance phase: Generally, dieters consume no more than 90 grams of carbohydrates daily in the maintenance phase.
In general, throughout the diet, unrestricted intakes of protein and fat are permitted, caloric intake is not restricted, and vitamin and mineral supplementation is recommended. Seafood and poultry are recommended. A regular exercise plan is recommended.
These uses have been tested in humans or animals. Safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider.
A carbohydrate-restricted diet has been shown to result in weight loss in obese and nonobese people. Shorter time periods may result in more significant effects. Overall, studies suggest that the Atkins Diet® does result in long-term weight loss.
Carbohydrate-restricted diets have been shown to benefit insulin levels in both diabetics and nondiabetics. Preliminary evidence suggests that the Atkins Diet® may improve metabolism in insulin-resistant women. Long-term safety studies are still required in this field before conclusions can be made.
One study reviewed the effectiveness of the Atkins Diet® in treating epilepsy. Preliminary evidence suggests that seizure frequency may be reduced in some people. More studies are required before conclusions can be made.
According to one study, significant differences in blood pressure were lacking when the Atkins Diet® was compared with a high-carbohydrate, low-fat, low-calorie conventional diet in obese or overweight men and women. Additional studies are needed before a conclusion can be made.
One study found that the Atkins Diet® may be linked to greater weight loss and improvements in cholesterol levels compared to other diets. More studies are needed before conclusions can be made.
* Key to grades
A: Strong scientific evidence for this use B: Good scientific evidence for this use C: Unclear scientific evidence for this use D: Fair scientific evidence for this use (it may not work) F: Strong scientific evidence against this use (it likley does not work)
Tradition / Theory
The below uses are based on tradition, scientific theories, or limited research. They often have not been thoroughly tested in humans, and safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider. There may be other proposed uses that are not listed below.
Many complementary techniques are practiced by healthcare professionals with formal training, in accordance with the standards of national organizations. However, this is not universally the case, and adverse effects are possible. Due to limited research, in some cases only limited safety information is available.
The Atkins Diet® is considered safe when used for periods no longer than 3-6 months by healthy overweight individuals who are not taking any medications.
Note: Vitamin supplements are recommended for people who follow the Atkins Diet® due to the potential for malnutrition.
In general, under the Atkins Diet®, it is recommended that dieters stop any unneeded medications. The book warns that diuretic drugs (drugs that promote urination) and antidiabetic medications (including insulin) have the potential to combine with the diet to produce an overdose.
The Atkins diet may lower blood sugar levels. Caution is advised when using medications, herbs, or supplements that may also lower blood sugar. People taking drugs for diabetes by mouth or insulin should be monitored closely by a qualified healthcare professional, including a pharmacist. Medication adjustments may be necessary.
The Atkins diet may cause low blood pressure. Caution is advised in people taking drugs, herbs, or supplements that lower blood pressure.
The Atkins diet may increase the amount of drowsiness caused by some drugs and herbs or supplements. Examples include benzodiazepines such as lorazepam (Ativan®) or diazepam (Valium®), barbiturates such as phenobarbital, narcotics such as codeine, some antidepressants, and alcohol. Caution is advised while driving or operating machinery.
The Atkins diet may interact with agents that prevent seizures, agents that promote urination, agents that treat psychological disorders, agents that treat stomach disorders, anticancer agents, antidiarrheal agents, anti-inflammatory agents, antiobesity agents, central nervous system stimulants, cholesterol-lowering agents, corticosteroids, growth hormones, heart health agents, laxatives, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs), and steroids.
The Atkins diet may interact with anticancer herbs and supplements, antidiarrheals, anti-inflammatory herbs and supplements, antiobesity agents, antioxidants, central nervous system stimulants, cholesterol-lowering herbs and supplements, ephedra (ma huang), heart health herbs and supplements, herbs and supplements that prevent seizures, herbs and supplements that promote urination, herbs and supplements that treat psychological disorders, herbs and supplements that treat stomach disorders, and laxatives.
Use cautiously over extended periods of time. There is a lack of safety tests over periods greater than one year.
Use cautiously in children, highly active people, and people who have or are taking medications for anemia, celiac disease, epilepsy and seizures, gout, hair loss, heart disease, kidney disease, malnourishment, menstrual disorders, nutrient absorption problems, osteoporosis, pregnancy, psychiatric disorders (including bipolar disorder, depression, and schizophrenia), skin disorders and rash, stomach disorders, type 2 diabetes, and thyroid conditions, due to the potential for worsened symptoms.
Use cautiously in people taking growth hormones, diuretics, and NSAIDs.
Avoid using in pregnant women, due to the potential for negative side effects in the fetus. Avoid using in breastfeeding women, due to a lack of safety data.
The Atkins Diet® may cause other side effects, such as abnormal heart rhythm, anxiety, bad breath, breathing difficulty, changes in arterial blood gases, constipation, decreased appetite, decreased bone density, decreased urinary pH, dehydration, diarrhea, dizziness, fatigue, Fanconi's renal tubular acidosis (kidney disease), gallbladder colic, gout, headache, heart disease, high anion, high lipase A, impaired brain function, increased body hair in women, increased calcium levels, increased cholesterol levels, increased menstrual bleeding, increased nitrogen levels, increased uric acid levels, inflammation, irritability, kidney stones, lipid disorders, low bicarbonate, low blood pH, low blood pressure, muscle cramps, nausea, negative feelings toward exercise, pain in upper stomach, panic, rash, shakiness, shortness of breath, sleep difficulties, stomach problems, tissue damage, and vomiting.
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The information in this monograph is intended for informational purposes only, and is meant to help users better understand health concerns. Information is based on review of scientific research data, historical practice patterns, and clinical experience. This information should not be interpreted as specific medical advice. Users should consult with a qualified healthcare provider for specific questions regarding therapies, diagnosis and/or health conditions, prior to making therapeutic decisions.